6. Flight Types
This section describes project management and flight mission planning operations.

6.1 Flight Type

Here you can be choose an AeroGCS mission which would be following certain plans as shown in the picture. You can select only one mission plan at a time.
Flight Types

6.2 Flight Plan

6.2.1 Waypoint

Waypoint
Once waypoint flight type is selected, then you can define the altitude at which the machine should fly. The metric of altitude will depend upon the ‘general setting’ of RPA type. AeroGCS would accept the flight altitude. For OEM user, as per QCI rule it should be 120 meters but for standard or free version, there is no limit. After that, we need to define the speed at which the RPA machine will fly as shown in the picture above.
These are the common parameters for all the way points. At each way point, the RPA will fly at given altitude and speed.
Under the mission planning, you can see the navigational map. You can draw the points on the map for RPA to fly. Yellow colored lines and points in above picture indicates these points. You can draw the map by using mouse or touch points to follow. Whenever you click on any waypoint, the respective navigation information i.e. longitude and latitude are displayed on the screen to validate. Using the right and left arrow near navigational information, then you can navigate through the different waypoint information. Then you can navigate the navigation map using the plus and minus buttons given at the left-hand screen.
For each waypoint, you can define the required speed and altitude. The speed and altitude will change whenever the RPA will reach to that way point. The distance from one waypoint to other waypoint will be covered with the parameters defined from starting way point.
You can define the action at each waypoint. If you want to capture an image at each waypoint, you can select it from the drop-down menu. Multiple actions related to image and video captures are supported.
Assigning Actions to Waypoint
The gimbal position setting like roll, pitch and yaw can be configured for each way point. Whenever RPA will reach to the waypoint, it will take that action with the defined camera or gimbal settings.
In mission planning, you can draw the points on map and the right side of window points will add in list.
At the right side of screen there is a waypoint list shown
In that current:
  • Latitude and longitude of the current waypoints are displayed.
  • Altitude and speed can be added individually for each waypoint.
  • Save: The save button is used to save the plan.
  • Clear: this clears the mission plan.
  • User can freely draw the mission plan with no limits of waypoints.
  • User set maximum altitude 121.92 meters and maximum speed to 20 m/s
Details of Waypoint plan
  • If the user wants to take photos, Camera action should be selected as per the application and accordingly set the Gimble actions. You can keep the gimble settings of pitch, roll and yaw to 0. If you want to set it at some specific positions you can change it. Otherwise keep it as it is.
  • Hold button to hover the vehicle on the desired waypoint for the entered value in sec.
  • You can save the plan using Save button
  • You can clear the mission plan using Clear button.

6.2.2 Survey Planning

In mission planning user can select the survey pattern option from flight type screen.
Survey
The survey pattern feature allow user to specify complex flight patterns using a simple graphical UI. User can specify the polygon as well as the specifications for survey pattern plan and camera settings appropriate for creating camera images. The flight will stop at each image location prior to taking the image such that the vehicle is stable while the image is taken. User can drag the polygon waypoints to a new location. The survey pattern is created as polygon waypoints dragged.
User can select flight type as Survey pattern. Selecting a survey pattern from option generates a survey pattern based on the altitude and known camera specification.
User can drag a polygon waypoints to get a survey area as per user’s requirements.
  • User can change the altitude of survey pattern planning.
  • User can set a turnaround angle to the survey pattern’s path line on the enter key. By default, turnaround angle is 0.
  • Turnaround distance is an amount of additional distance to add outside the survey area for flight turnaround. Users can set the turnaround distance to the survey pattern by entering the required value in the given text box. By default, turnaround distance is 0.
  • User can set the front overlapping, side overlapping value to the images also in the respective text boxes. By default, the front overlap value is 0. Image overlapping overlap occurs between each image.
Flight Statistics
  • Flight Statistics:
  1. 1.
    The flight statistic section shows the calculated survey area and planned photo count.
  2. 2.
    Camera: Camera triggering behavior depends on the camera/camera settings. User can select an existing camera or a custom camera.
Custom Camera Settings
  • Custom Camera:
Selecting the custom camera option allows user to specify the settings for a new camera in a similar way to the known camera. Users can set the following values in the respective text boxes.
The camera-specific settings are:
1. Sensor width/height: The size of the image sensor of the camera.
2. Focal length: The length of the camera lens.

6.2.3 Spraying

Spraying
Spraying speed: sets the minimum vehicle speed (in cm/s) at which the pump will operate. Default is 100 meaning the pump will begin when the vehicle is traveling at or above 1m/s.
Pump Rate: controls the pump rate (expressed as a percentage) when the vehicle is traveling at 1m/s. By default, this is 10%. The pump rate increases linearly with the vehicle speed meaning by default the pump will reach 100% at 10m/s.
  • Spacing: Adjust the spacing between two polylines.
  • Altitude: Mission altitude
  • Spraying trigger: trigger the sprayer at distance
  • Turnaround distance: Polylines are turned by this angle
  • Turnaround distance: distance increases at the corner of polygon
  • Spraying area: display total calculated spraying area
  • Spraying spot: total spot where sprayer will enable.

6.2.4 Import KML

Import KML
  • You can import the existing file with .kml extension which contains the plan and the respective information like altitude, latitude and longitude etc.
  • You just need to mention speed of the flight.

6.2.5 Vertical Flight Plan

Vertical
  • You can provide number of way-points with the desired altitude to each way-point.
  • Hold can be provided to each way-point, if you want to hover on particular height.
  • Individual speed can be assigned to the way-points.
  • Camera action defines the photo capture action.
6.2.6 Add Rally Points
Normally, when a drone enters Return to Launch (RTL) mode, the normal behavior is to return to the Home point, however this isn't always the case. For example, it could be a crowded environment with valuables, and a system in RTL mode could be in a state that requires extra vigilance! It's also feasible that the flight plan is vast enough that returning to the point of departure should the aircraft enter RTL mode is undesirable.
As a result, user is now allowed to create several Rally Points. If a drone enters the RTL mode and Rally Points have been defined, it will proceed to the nearest Rally Point instead of the Home location. The plane will then linger at that position, and the Copter will land there automatically.
The user can add the rally point to any of the flight types. These are the points located randomly on the flight plan by the user. The violet colored points in following picture shows the rally points added.
Rally points added
The following points are to be considered before setting the rally points:
  1. 1.
    It is highly recommended to set all the rally points inside the fence only.
  2. 2.
    Altitudes of the rally points should be sufficiently high enough to clear terrain and buildings.
  3. 3.
    The maximum number of allowed rally points is 6.
Note: Make sure that the altitudes of Rally Point are high enough to clear terrain and buildings.
6.2.7 Fence
Fence
The fence is a geo-boundary under which a drone should fly. Once mission planning is completed then you need to create a fence. Fence should be always outside of the mission planning area. It must not overlap the mission plan. If it overlaps the mission plan then RPA will not function properly. Therefore, it must be always outside the mission plan boundaries. When RPA sends permission artefact requests to DGCA, that time the fence details are sent to DGCA to seek permission. If permission is approved, then RPA can fly within the given fence area.
  1. 1.
    The return point must be within the fence perimeter, which must be completely enclosed.
  2. 2.
    This means it must have at least 4 points, with the last point being the same as the first.
  3. 3.
    The boundary can have a maximum of 18 points.
You get the option to clear and redraw the fence. You can adjust the fenced area with drag and drop method.

6.2.8 Flight Approval Process

During the flight approval process, the drone sends the geo-fence coordinates along with time to DGCA system for approval. In order to do this activity, the AeroGCS should have internet connection. During the transaction with DGCA following information is sent to DGCA,
a) UIN number of drone,
b) The digital signature
c) Geo-fence coordinates.
DGCA platform approves or denies the permission. If permission request is approved, then DGCA sends the Permission Artefact with permission parameters. Every permission artefact from DGCA has got an ID called Permission Artefact ID (PA ID). Since this PA ID is in encrypted format, it is requiring to decrypt it using the private key of autopilot. After decryption only, PA ID is available with RPA. If permission is granted, then AeroGCS allows to upload the mission plan to RPA. After clicking Upload button the mission is uploaded to the RPA.

6.2.9 Flight Fly View

Fly View
When the RPA has to be flown, you need to go to fly view. This is the area from where the flights are managed and tracked. The flight fly view has various options displayed on the left drawer as below.
6.2.9.1 Take-off
Once clicked on Take-Off, the ARM and takeoff commands are sent to RPA. RPA will do the basic pre-flight check and do the takeoff if everything is proper.
6.2.9.2 Land
The land button enables you to make the RPA land. Once it is clicked, the RPA will stop by slowing down the flying and start coming back to the point given to land after clicking on the land button. This button will be enabled only if a flight has already taken off. If the take-off command is not given then this button will remain in disabled mode.
6.2.9.3 RTL
Return to Land (RTL) is used for an emergency landing at home. The device will find the shortest distance to land at home. If the rally points are added to the plan, then the device will check the minimum distance between either the home or rally point for landing. The device will select a minimum distance for a safe landing.
6.2.9.4 Pause
The pause command will give pause instructions to the RPA. Under this condition, the RPA will pause at the point it is flying. It will go into 'hovering' mode at the given location. Once pause is active then the RPA will enable resume action.
6.2.9.5 Resume
The resume command will give operation resume instructions to the RPA. Under this condition the RPA will resume the flight from the point where it was paused.
6.2.9.6 Live Details
Few number of parameters of the performance of RPA has shown on the Fly view screen. The important one is the heading position of the RPA. Using the magnetometer, the AeroGCS will show the live heading position of the heading of RPA. Similarly, the AeroGCS will show the value of the battery available. Based on the status of the remaining power of the battery, the AeroGCS will showcase the usage and remaining power in the battery.
AeroGCS shows the position of the drone using navigation parameters like longitude and latitude. These readings are taken from navigation equipment like GPS. Altitude is also shown as positioning parameter of RPA. The altitude value is driven by the barometer of the flight controller hardware.
The AeroGCS shows nearly real-time values of Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) to show the self-position of RPA. Under this live data, the parameters like roll, pitch, and yaw is shown.
6.2.9.7 Live Tracking
The AeroGCS continuous tracks the live position of the RPA. It gets latest coordinates of RPA position and then AeroGCS shows the current position of the RPA on the mission plan. Whatever distance the RPA has covered, it will show the distance covered with heading direction of the RPA. If there is latency between the AeroGCS and RPA then it AeroGCS will show the position with latency.

6.3 Existing Projects management

6.3.1 Active Projects

This section helps you to manage your all active projects. Here all active projects are displayed. The project plan information is also displayed here. You can see how many flights in one project is completed and how many are remaining.

6.3.2 Planned Flights

Here you can see all the planned flights of a project. Under Planned flight section, it lists all flights which are planned. It displays the plan name, approximate time to complete the flight plan and the altitude to achieve during the flight plan. You can open this plan
Plan

6.3.3 Open Existing Plan

You can open an existing plan and fly the RPA using the exiting plan. It saves time to prepare a new plan. Existing plan is opened with all of its settings. When you want to fly existing plan, you need to get the permission once again from DGCA system. In order to fly the RPA, you need to connect the RPA. When it is successfully connected then you can go for seeking permission from the DGCA. Once you get the permission, then you can fly the RPA.
Existing Plan

6.3.4 Add New Plans to Project

Under this section, you can add new plan to a project.
Plans